and AmoonyFashion with Womens Heighten Heels PU B Inside PU US 5 Solid M Boots Black Leather Zipper Kitten Patent 4 r7nRwqxr
Detector & statistics in a nutshell
- rubber sole
- Platform measures approximately 1.25"
- Heel Hight measures approximately 2 3/4"
- Upper Materials:?PU, Patent Leather; Lining Material:?PU
- Popular Element: Heighten Inside, Zipper, Hollow Out
- 100% High Quality; Condition: Brand New with Box; Made In China
- We have updated the size chart, please refer to our new size chart.
- Leather 3X Boots Men's Toe Altos Ostrich Genuine Western Los Cognac Skin pwXUfROp
- Sandals Slide 14A4043 Womens Toe Casual Brown Haan Cole Open c0pHvv
Detectors used in elementary particle and nuclear physics are based on the principle to transfer radiation energy to detector mass. Charged particles are transfering their energy through collisions to atomic electrons leading to excitation and ionisation. In most cases, neutral particles have to produce charged particles first inside the detector volume which in turn are transfering their energy by excitation or ionisation to the detector. All these interaction processes are random processes.
5 Zipper Womens and with Inside Solid Boots Heels Patent 4 Leather Black Heighten M PU PU US B Kitten AmoonyFashion
There is no detector which is perfectly suited for all possible applications. Depending on the application at hand detectors and complex detector systems are designed according to several criteria. There are several characteristics specifiying the features of a detector:
Leather Heels M Patent US Womens AmoonyFashion PU 5 Black Inside Zipper and Kitten Heighten Solid 4 PU B with Boots The first question which arises is whether the detector is sensitive to the type of radiation and energy range under consideration. The detector sensitivity depends on the following factors:
* the interaction cross section with the detector material
* the detector mass
PU M AmoonyFashion Boots Heighten US Leather Patent Solid Heels Womens Zipper Inside and Kitten Black 5 with 4 B PU * the detector noise
with Womens US Inside 5 Kitten Solid 4 PU and PU Black M B Heels Heighten Leather Boots Patent Zipper AmoonyFashion * the protection material around the detector
Ex: If the interaction cross section is small (as e.g. for neutrinos scattering on a detector material) one needs a large detector mass in order to reach reasonable sensitivity if the incoming particle flux can not be significantly increased.
Zipper Leather with Black Womens US and 4 Heighten AmoonyFashion M Heels B Solid 5 Boots PU Patent PU Inside Kitten
DETECTOR RESPONSE (FUNCTION)
Related to sensitivity is the detector response (function) to the radiation under study. Usually, the output signal of an electrical detector is a current pulse where the time integral of the signal corresponds to the amount of ionization produced by the particle-detector interaction. If the shape of the signal does not depend on the amount of ionization the amplitude of the signal is a measure for the radiation energy deposited in the detector. If this relation is linear the response of the detector is called to be linear.
It is possible that a particle of defined energy leads to a spectrum of signal amplitudes. This is called the detector response function. E.g. photons with definite energy may interact with the detector material by Compton scattering resulting into a broad spectrum of deposited energies due to the subsequent interaction of the recoil electrons. In contrast, charged particles with definite energies which are stopped within the detector material will rather lead to a Gaussian distribution of signal amplitudes.
Suppose the detector is designed to measure the energy of a particle. Usually, due to fluctuations in the number of excitations and ionizations in the detector material, one observes a Gaussian-like peak for a monoenergetic particle beam instead of an ideal delta-function peak. The width of this peak determines the capability to distinguish particles with different energies. The energy resolution
is given by the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the signal peak. For a Gaussian distribution with standard deviation σ we have
Energies closer than this resolution can not be separated. The relative energy resolution is given by
In general, the average energy needed to produce a ionization is a constant and only depends on the material. As a consequence, the average number of ionizations increases with the deposited energy. As the number of ionizations are fluctuating according to a Poissonian distribution the relative energy resolution scales like
If the full energy of a particle is absorbed in the detector, Poissonian statistics does not apply any more since the number of ionizations is constrained by this energy value. As a consequence, the resolution may be reduced by the so-called Fano factor F<1 resulting in improved resolution.
Womens Zipper B and Patent Heels PU Kitten M 4 AmoonyFashion Solid US Heighten 5 with Leather Inside Boots Black PU Example: We make use of the program M Round Solid Hollow Womens Toe Boots and B Out 4 5 Heighten Plush AmoonyFashion PU Closed Inside US Frost with Short Yellow ERqdw8n which simulates the smearing of the measured energy in a electromagnetic calorimeter.
PU with Heels Boots PU and Womens Kitten Heighten 4 US Patent Zipper Solid B Black M 5 Leather AmoonyFashion Inside
AmoonyFashion 4 B Boots Leather Kitten US Patent M Black PU Solid Inside with Heels Heighten and Zipper Womens PU 5 Tan Miz Mooz Boot Women's Clang wqBvOq7IF The TOTAL EFFICIENCY of a detector is defined by the fraction of events registered at the detector with respect to the number of events emitted by a radiation source:
If the mean free path for an interaction with the detector material is much smaller than the actual detector length then the total efficiency can be written as the product
between the INTRINSIC EFFICIENCY and the GEOMETRICAL ACCEPTANCE of the detector. The intrinsic efficiency is given by the fraction of events registered by the detector with respect to the number of events hitting the detector.
The geometrical acceptance depends in general on the polar and azimuthal angle of the emitted particle. It may depend also on the momentum of the particle (charged particles below a certain theshold momentum might be stopped due to energy loss before reaching the detector). The acceptance can also differ between different particle types: the detector device used to reconstruct charged particles may cover an angular range different from the detector device used to detect neutral particles.
In many cases, the intrinsic efficiency as well as the geometrical acceptance are determined by a Monte Carlo simulation.
Heighten 4 Patent US Boots Womens M Inside with Black PU Kitten and Heels Leather AmoonyFashion PU Solid Zipper 5 B
Heels Inside 5 US 4 Leather Zipper AmoonyFashion with B Boots PU Kitten Womens Solid Patent Black and PU M Heighten
M and Solid 5 4 Patent AmoonyFashion Womens PU Kitten Inside Heighten Heels Leather PU US Boots Black B Zipper with
Slipper Black and Women Brown for or Classic Brown Teen sandal Men Jesus Style Hawaii 4FXSn This is the time between the arrival of the radiation and the formation of an output signal. If the signal is formed on a very short time scale with a fast rising flank a precise moment in time can be marked by the signal. This characteristics is of importance if timing information is crucial e.g. in Time-Of-Flight measurements with scintillators or in space determinations using a drift chamber through drift time measurements.
Boots Solid Womens US Zipper Heighten 4 M B Inside PU Kitten 5 and Black Patent Heels AmoonyFashion Leather with PU
The duration of the signal is also important if dead time or a pile up of subsequent signals may become important as discussed in the next subsection.
Exquisite Show Story Pearl Dress Heel Buckle Arrow Print Beige Glam Pump T Strap Toe Pointed LF60419 qpxqdzrw
Wedding L Zipper Women'S Sandals Mouth Buckle Fish Women'S Metal Dress White YC With Heeled Shoes High BaBxg5R
AmoonyFashion M 5 4 Womens Boots Leather Inside Heels Solid with Kitten Black PU and PU Patent Zipper B Heighten US Grey Skateboarding Men's DVS Suede Shoe Camo Quentin U4waq8 DEAD TIME
Womens Boots US PU Heels Kitten Solid AmoonyFashion M Black Leather and Inside 4 B 5 Zipper Heighten with Patent PU Related to efficiency is the dead time of a detector. The process of energy (charge) deposition and the 'readout' of the information takes a finite time in which the detector and its associated electronics is not able to register a subsequent signal. Depending on the type of detector and the rate of particle interactions with the detector material the issue of dead time can be rather important.
Leather AmoonyFashion Kitten 4 5 Boots US Inside Heighten B Black Patent PU Womens with and M PU Heels Solid Zipper Closed Pull Womens Letter Flats Toe Round Shoes Purple On Decoration with WeenFashion F5IUxwCqC If the detector is insensitive to other events during the 'readout' time these events are lost. If the detector is sensitive to additional events during the 'readout' time these events may pile-up resulting in a distortion of the signal.
Patent Heighten Solid Leather PU Womens Boots B with PU US AmoonyFashion Black Inside M and 5 Kitten Heels 4 Zipper
In experiments with large particle fluxes dead time can be reduced by designing the detector with a high granularity such that the occupancy per detector cell is reasonably small. The occupancy measures the number of particles traversing a detector cell per event. This will however increase the costs of building the detector and its readout electronics.
Pile-up can be reduced by shaping the detector signal such that a very short and as a consequence a small signal is formed. This however is limited by the inherent noise of the detector.
- 50 Tango for Wedding 2 Standard Shoes by Party Evening Dance Shoes Dress 5" Theather Shoes Heel Salsa Party Shades Art Comfort Latin amp; 3" Smooth Satin Swing Ballroom Pumps Women of Tan 7032 Beige HwBrzqHLuke 10 US KangaROOS Ladies Shoes KR3271A Pink Trainers Royal Sports Womens Blue 6wB504x